Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy, often before a woman even knows that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. In anencephaly, most of the brain and skull do not develop. Babies with anencephaly are usually either stillborn or die shortly after birth. Another type of defect, Chiari malformation, causes the brain tissue to extend into the spinal canal.
Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is born, through lab or imaging tests. There is no cure for neural tube defects. The nerve damage and loss of function that are present at birth are usually permanent. However, a variety of treatments can sometimes prevent further damage and help with complications.
Your fallopian tubes are a pair of hollow, muscular ducts located between your ovaries and your uterus. Each fallopian tube is a channel between your ovaries, where your body makes eggs, and your uterus, where a fertilized egg can develop into a fetus. Fertilization occurs in your fallopian tubes, making it a key part of your reproductive anatomy that affects your fertility.
Yes. You may have been born with only one fallopian tube, or you may have had a fallopian tube removed because of a condition or injury. If you have at least one healthy fallopian tube and ovary, and your menstrual cycle is normal, you can still get pregnant.
Many conditions that affect your fallopian tubes are out of your control, but you can take steps to prevent infections that can damage your fallopian tubes and cause infertility. Practicing safer sex and limiting your number of sex partners can reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to PID.
Your fallopian tubes bridge the important work that your ovaries and your uterus do. This is why conditions that negatively impact your fallopian tubes negatively impact your fertility, too. Taking steps to prevent infection is the best way to keep your fallopian tubes healthy. If your fallopian tubes are damaged or have been removed, you may still be able to become pregnant through in vitro fertilization. Discuss your options with your provider or a fertility specialist.
Very early in the development of a fetus, certain cells form a tube (called the neural tube) that will later become the spinal cord, the brain, and the nearby structures that protect them, including the backbone (also called the spinal column or vertebrae). As development progresses, the top of the tube becomes the brain and the remainder becomes the spinal cord. An NTD occurs when this tube does not close completely somewhere along its length, resulting in a hole in the spinal column or another type of problem.
Spina bifida (pronounced SPY-nuh BIF-i-duh) is the most common type of NTD. It occurs when the neural tube does not close completely. An infant born with spina bifida usually has paralysis of the nerves below the affected area of the spinal cord, which can cause lifelong problems with walking and other difficulties. Because bladder and bowel functions are controlled by the lowest spinal nerves, bowel and urinary dysfunction are common with spina bifida. Many infants with spina bifida have normal intelligence, but some will have learning disabilities or intellectual disabilities.1 There are several common types of spina bifida:
Anencephaly (pronounced an-en-SEF-uh-lee) is a more severe, but less common, type of NTD. This condition occurs when the neural tube fails to close at the top. As a result, most or all of the brain is missing, and parts of the skull may also be lacking. Infants born with this condition usually remain unconscious and are deaf, blind, and unable to feel pain because brain structures related to those functions do not exist. They may have reflex actions, such as breathing and responding to touch. Infants with anencephaly are either stillborn or die soon after birth.4
Encephalocele (pronounced ehn-SEF-o-low-seel), another rare type of NTD, occurs when the tube fails to close near the brain and there is an opening in the skull. The brain and membranes that cover it can protrude through the skull, forming a sac-like bulge. In some cases, there is only a small opening in the nasal cavity or forehead area that is not noticeable. Infants with encephalocele may have other problems, such as hydrocephalus, limb paralysis, developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, seizures, vision problems, a small head, facial and skull abnormalities, and uncoordinated movements (ataxia). Despite the various disabilities and developmental effects, some children with this condition have normal intelligence.5
Ear tubes, also known as myringotomy tubes, are small tubes that are surgically placed into your child's eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat surgeon. The tubes are usually made of plastic or metal. The tubes are placed to help drain fluid out of the middle ear, the space between the ear drum and the inner ear, in order to reduce the frequency and severity of ear infections.
During an ear infection, fluid gathers in the middle ear, which can cause discomfort and affect your child's hearing. Sometimes, even after the infection is gone, some fluid may remain in the ear. The tubes help drain this fluid, and prevent it from building up.
Normally, the middle ears are ventilated by the eustachian tubes, the canals that link the middle ear with the back of the nose. These eustachian tubes help drain fluid and allow air into the middle ear space, equalizing the pressure inside the ear; when they become swollen, the excess middle ear fluid cannot drain out. Ear tubes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and materials, but they're all designed to allow an alternative way to ventilate the middle ear.
Once placed, ear tubes are usually successful in significantly reducing ear infections. Most children will get one or two infections a year, and the infected pus typically drains on its own, through the opening created by the tubes.
Myringotomy is the surgical procedure that is performed to insert ear tubes. Ear tube placement is usually an outpatient procedure. This means that your child will have surgery, and then go home that same day. The procedure usually takes about 15 minutes and is done under general anesthesia.
Myringotomy involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain fluid and relieve pressure from the middle ear. A small tube is then placed in the opening of the eardrum to ventilate the middle ear and to prevent fluid from accumulating. The tubes usually fall out on their own after nine to 12 months.
Fortunately, ear tubes require relatively little follow-up. After the surgery, children return to their surgeon's office a month after the procedure, then every six months after that until the ear tubes fall out. By that point, many children outgrow their ear problems and don't require additional sets of tubes.
Use for beer can was popularised in UK by a long-running series of advertisements for Foster's lager, where Paul Hogan used a phrase "crack an ice-cold tube" previously associated with Barry Humphries' character Barry McKenzie. (For discussion of this see Paul Matthew St. Pierre's book cited above.)
Yes, you can. Staff on the neonatal unit will encourage you to be as involved as possible in the care of your baby on the neonatal unit. If you feel comfortable doing so, they should show you and your partner how to give tube feeds. Staff on the neonatal unit will explain how tube feeding works and will teach you how to:
If your baby is well enough to come out of the incubator, you and your partner can also practice skin-to-skin contact with your baby while they are tube feeding. Skin-to-skin contact has lots of benefits for you and your baby, and helps parents to feel closer to their baby and more confident in caring for them.
In time, you may notice your baby demonstrating feeding cues during a tube feed. For example, they may open and close their mouth, put out their tongue or suck their fingers during a tube feed. This shows that they might be ready to practise breastfeeding or bottle feeding.
This tube contains a valve that opens and closes. Inadequate opening of this tube can cause a buildup of fluid in the ears, which can lead to a feeling of pain and pressure in the ear. A tube that is too open can also cause a persistent feeling of pressure as well as hearing unusual sounds such as your own breathing or your own voice too loudly. Eustachian tube disorders are common and one of the leading causes of ear infections (otitis media).
Patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction is a disorder of the valve of the Eustachian tube that causes it to remain open. When this valve remains open, sound can travel from the nasal-sinus cavity to the ears, allowing you to hear your own voice or your own breathing too loudly, or even the sound of blood pumping. Patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction can also alternate with obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction.
Your doctor may use a variety of techniques to diagnose patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction while viewing your ear drum (tympanic membrane). Your doctor may ask you to breathe deeply and swallow to see how the ear drum responds. Your doctor may also measure the pressure inside your ear using specialized tools.
The surgical method will be determined by your doctor. In some cases, tympanostomy tubes (ear tubes) may make the condition worse. Implants, fillers, grafts and fat transfers act to fill out the tissue in the surrounding area so the Eustachian tube can close properly and return to normal function. Sometimes grafts are applied to the ear drum.
A common course of treatment for Eustachian tube dysfunction is the use of decongestants or antihistamines. In some cases, this treatment may make the condition worse. If decongestants or antihistamines do not provide relief, contact your doctor. You may need to see an ear, nose and throat specialist for treatment. 041b061a72